For many years, the metal forming process has been in use. Currently there are different types of metal forming within various industries. Some of them include; rolling, wire drawing, both hot and cold forming, sheet metal stamping and hydroforming. In the application of this forming within the surfaces, high temperatures and pressures are involved. Different products made from aluminum, copper alloys, steel and stainless steel are designed to function in cold forming. In the various process of forming, there are different techniques used that uses lubricants and special tools simultaneously in the production of a high quality product. Due to the different characteristics of applications of metal work, different lubricants are used.
Functions of Lubricants
Due to the excessive heating and corrosion in the forming process, lubricant must be used. There are different functions of lubricants used in metal forming. Lubricants are used to cool of the metals as soon as they heat up hence easing up the process. They also increase lubricity within the metals making the work easier. Lubricants technically removes the scrap on the metals. Additionally, they protect the metals against corrosion from rust. Moreover, these liquids should be applied constantly within the forming process. All these functions work towards the goal of ensuring that the metal forming components and the tools create products that requires low maintenance.
Things to Consider While Choosing an Appropriate Lubricant
The application process and methods with all other factors should be taken into account before considering the type of fluid to be used. Location and time of the application should be put in mind in proper application of a metal forming lubricants. Other factors to be considered are the end results of the product with respect to the original product, the water quality used in the fluids that are water based, the method of application and more importantly, the preferences of the customers. The forming process should be performed under the constraints of this parameters.
Types of Forming Lubricants
Oil based lubricants- these types of lubricants offers a longer service and also provide great lubricity within the metals but are less soluble. They are widely used in the forming process since they have a high viscosity index and reduced oxidation.Synthetic lubricants-they consist of artificially made compounds especially from petroleum products but can also be extracted from other materials, they offer high cooling effect and good lubricity. There are also neo synthetics where emulsification is done with water rather than oil.
Water based lubricants- they are used in cooling metals and reducing friction in between the surfaces. They are also called soluble emulsions. Contrary to others, they do not offer lubricity and commonly used in applications where there is high speed.
Dry film lubricants-they are also known as solid lubricants and are usually made with materials such as graphite. They can reduce corrosion and friction of metals without necessarily adding oil or water. In high pressures and temperatures, they are the best option to be used.In summation, it is important to ensure that mass of the product is not changed while changing the physical appearance. Fashioning products through metal works requires machines than can withstand the heavy loads and stress.